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  • EAST-WEST BRIDGE
    had agreed and inflated prices of drugs covered by the universal medical insurance and purchased them from favoured pharmaceutical companies In January 2011 the Special Court in charge of Organized Crime has opened the trial of former director of Serbian State railways Milenko Sarancic and three of his closest aides accused of damaging the company for 1 235 000 euro March 2011 Twenty one defendant sentenced to a total of 60 years of prison over customs fraud The group made more than several million euros from smuggling March 2011 The Prosecutor s office launched an investigation into alleged corruption abuse of office and money laundry against the former general manager of state company Roads of Serbia Branko Jocic The group is suspected of embezzlement of funds received from the European Bank for reconstruction and repairs after a landslide in municipalities of Krupanj and Loznica The group has paid 43 million RSD to a privately owned company Rotijer for the reconstruction it never performed Rotijer than bought a 63 m2 apartment for Jocic s mother for which it paid 2 5 million RSD In January 2011 a district court sentenced Jocic to two years for forging documents and overstepping the budget in excess of 190 million RSD In May 2011 an investigation was launched against 17 persons over reasonable doubt that they committed several acts of abuse of office and money laundry between 2005 and 2008 during construction of regional road between Pozarevac and Kostolac and maintenance of regional roads thereby damaging the state budget for more than 300 million RSD An investigation was launched against former general manager of state company Roads of Serbia Branko Jocic former member of the Main Board of Serbian Power Company EPS Radosav Savatijevic and another 15 persons The Prosecution believes that they charged Roads of Serbia and Directorate for Construction of the municipality of Pozarevac for road construction and maintenance they never performed As a result a number of persons and private companies acquired illegal profits Most of the works have been carried out without proper documentation and approvals Works on construction of regional road between Pozarevac and Kostolac were given to the company PZP Beograd without proper public procurement notice and the work was carried out without permission Works on maintenance of regional roads have been given to the same company despite the fact that it had no authority to perform that kind of work Furthermore the group has drained money from Roads of Serbia for purchasing more than 86 000 tonnes of asphalt that was never used on aforementioned roads In May 2011 the Special Court for Organized Crime launched an investigation into alleged embezzlement and abuse of office by the owner of Nibens Corporation Milo Djuraskovic and his aides The Prosecution believes that the group has damaged Krusevac based Fam company for more than 32 million euros while Djuraskovic himself acquired more than 15 million euros The investigation includes a number of Djuraskovic s closest aides who accumulated several functions in a number of other companies Among them are Dejan Jevtic and Risto Ristic from Belgrade Fam s general manager Branislav Jovanovic from Krusevac member of Fam s Main Board Liljana Kostic and Chief Financial Officer Milica Bradic it further included top officials from PZP Beograd Boro Jelic and Srdjan Filipovic They are suspected of acquiring illegal financial gain for Djuraskovic in the period between 2007 and 2010 by delivering payouts from Nibens Group and by using the company s business structure under their direct or indirect control They were taking loans from commercial banks for Fam company and than transferred the money in agreement with Djuraskovic to accounts of another private firm the Share Corporation Former Kolubara coal mine General Director Dragan Tomic and 16 other suspects were arrested on suspicion of abuse of office and embezzlement of more than EUR 10mn Besides Tomic who was the Kolubara director from 2004 2008 police also arrested Dragan Jovicic who succeeded him in 2008 2009 former Serbian Power Company EPS Board of Directors and Pam ek Aros beton Beokran komerc and Beoogrev companies owner Radoslav Savatijevic and another 14 former and current Kolubara officials and owners of private enterprises The arrests follow months of pre trial investigation by the Office of Prosecutor for Organized Crime The police submitted volumes of evidence which is now under procedure More than 30 persons are now included in this procedure The prosecution has launched this case back in 2008 The Office of Prosecutor for Organized Crime is leading a pre trial investigation which lead to the arrest of nine persons in Novi Sad over reasonable doubt that they abused their positions as members of Executive Board and Overseeing Board of Metals Bank and allowed illegal credit lines that had drained more than 1 615 000 000 00 RSD from the bank in the period between 2006 to October 2008 The sheer complexity of high profile corruption cases and the number of accused contributes to slow court procedures which is why these cases take longer but certainly not the lack of political will or the lack of legal or technical frame Serbian authorities have been warning that no one will be spared in the fight against corruption and that no one s position in a party or government could make him above the law In the latest move on Tuesday Oct 4 the police arrested the Mayor of the Alibunar district in Serbia Danijel Kismarton for allegedly receiving 5 000 euros in bribes Kismarton is a member of the ruling DS party ONGOING TRIALS Darko Saric s criminal group trial is under way in front of the Special Court for Organized Crime for smuggling of 2 T of cocaine from South America the same group stands a separate trial for laundering more than 20 million euros acquired through the sell of cocaine Similar proceedings for smuggling 2 174 kg of cocaine are under way in Italy Slovenia Brazil and Uruguay In the meantime two fresh indictments have

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  • EAST-WEST BRIDGE
    worked under the FBI s Cyber Division Designed to meet state and federal Internet safety mandates the FBI SOS Safe Online Surfing Internet Challenge is a free educational program that delivers critical Internet safety information in a fun competitive format to students in 3rd through 8th grades with a separate monthly challenge for each grade level At the end of each month the schools with the highest scoring students in each grade are rewarded with a visit from a FBI Special Agent who presents the national trophy The FBI s Miami field office collaborated with Nova Southeastern University s Fischler School of Education and Human Services six years ago to create the program which is now a national FBI initiative Program administrator Daryl Hulce has logged thousands of miles presenting to numerous FBI field office agents and school administrators with his efforts resulting in participation of schools from 40 states It s so critical to educate students how to recognize and react to online dangers said Jeff Alfrey principal at Harry Andersen Middle School in Omaha NE which won a challenge in May The program was easy to implement and I was amazed with the tremendous enthusiasm our students displayed

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  • EAST-WEST BRIDGE
    latest natural disasters hardened efforts to find the solution Current distribution of political power and responsibilities provides very little integrity and independency to lower levels of governance Even the state administration is often impotent to resolve burning issues such as timely development of secondary legislation by laws and ability to support their implementation Followed by financial weakness administration is facing difficulties to maintain sustainable development concept particularly if this is to be and it should be in line with the requirements of the EU integration processes and harmonization with acquis Furthermore poverty rate in Serbia now is close to 25 which is the worst in Europe and destitution makes public respond weaker than needed for energetic support to a necessary action Finally the level of corruption is still considerably high and is a huge obstacle for proper and efficient policy making as well as for doing normal and fair businesses Facts and Figures Serbia is currently producing twice as much CO 2 per GDP than the rest of the Europe Serbia is spending 3 5 times more energy per GDP than the rest of the developed world According to the EU estimations Serbia would need between 10 to 11 billion EUR for investments in next 10 years in environmental rehabilitation waste water drinking water landfills and overall pollution control systems in order to achieve EU standards Apart from that estimated annual turnover at the waste market in Serbia could easily cap at 1 billion EUR a year The recycling industry is depending on the product processing less than 20 of the available waste due to unorganized collection scheme and lack of capacities while junk is even imported to serve local industry As an illustration only for environmental recycling taxes administration collected about 87 million EUR last year 2013 and at the same time it was supposed to disburse some 16 million EUR for incentives The missing parts are specific and hazardous waste treatments as well as secondary industry which would use crude materials and by products from recycling There are no composting sites for municipal bio waste treatment These opportunities can easily produce 20 000 new jobs and would enable substantial investments Green energy is an open field for investors Potentials in wind in Serbia are estimated at 2GW none still operational biomass could produce some 32 TWh which can be compared with the production capacity of 3GW just few small installations are currently running small hydroelectric power plants could feed the system with up to 0 5GW where not more than 35 has been either finished or are under construction solar power can provide at least 1 5GW solar radiation in Serbia is between 480 580 W m 2 whereas only below 2MW are currently running and geothermal energy which is almost neglected in the energy production could match the needs with not less than 1 8 GW over 160 hot springs are available in Serbia with temperature of the water up to 90 o C at the mouth

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  • EAST-WEST BRIDGE
    nbsp nbsp Serbia Germany Forum EWB Suisse The Danube Initiative and Strategy Center Reports Foreign and Domestic Policies Human Rights Economy Media Anti Crime Anti Corruption and Anti Terrorism Ecology Health Care and Education Danube Press Reports 16 04 2014 Nova politika zaštite životne sredine Prelazak sa socijalne ekologije na zelenu ekonomiju i zeleni rast PREDLOG NOVA POLITIKA ZAŠTITE ŽIVOTNE SREDINE PRELAZAK SA SOCIJALNE EKOLOGIJE NA ZELENU EKONOMIJU I ZELENI

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  • EAST-WEST BRIDGE
    common dream The challenges of space technology still continue to push society on generation to generation Forget the internet this is the Facebook generation We even plan to put a person on Mars within a decade Until April 2010 we still believed that our technology was unlimited Now on the contrary we have learned that the powerful US military cannot stop the flow and that their abilities are even less than BP s Before the US House congressional hearing the heads of all the major oil companies indicated their inability to help Until the two relief wells are finished in mid August and permanently cement the hole shut the oil will continue to spill Some experts say even this solution is not guaranteed The current reality is much worse than I predicted Our technology cannot save our base on Earth even as it soars toward Mars I am afraid that the Gulf ecosystem might take several decades precisely more than 50 years to recover It is reported that fish shrimp and birds still have not fully returned to Alaska after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill This issue with water reminds me of a speech I gave at a Rotary International convention in Mexico in 1991 My friend the late John Denver was master of ceremonies and sang and played before my speech Here is an excerpt to restore our thoughts to the deeper issue at hand We live on a world of water From space our planet is blue with the oceans that cover 70 percent of its surface As life on our planet comes from water we too are formed from a single cell in the small sea of our mother s womb Like the earth we are 70 percent water But something is terribly wrong when water

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  • EAST-WEST BRIDGE
    on the Gulf of Mexico have made extraordinary efforts to recover their lives and community Tourists are returning fishermen are enjoying profitable catches the economy is recovering and the Saints won the Super Bowl New Orleans is back in business However feelings of extreme fear and insecurity returned with the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20 2010 The oil spill originating from a deepwater oil well 5 000 feet 1 500 m below sea level is discharging an estimated 210 000 US gallons of crude oil daily The spill is expected to eclipse the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill as the worst US oil disaster in history Experts fear that it will result in an environmental disaster as the oil from the well site reaches the Gulf coast damaging the Gulf s fishing and tourism industries and the habitat of hundreds of bird species I am afraid I predict the worst possible outcomes but I am more afraid that reality is on my side Consider why life in New Orleans and the surrounding region was able to recover in a relatively short period of time The Gulf is an ecosystem teeming with a rich diversity of birds aquatic life and people Such a complex system is also delicately balanced New Orleans despite its repeatedly unfortunate history has been blessed with a wealth of natural resources But we have missed the basic vision and wisdom that allowed our ancestors to live cooperatively and sustainably in such an environment And without this abundance of resources the quick recovery of the city would not be possible America has benefited immensely from its natural resources resources that were not handed down to us by our ancestors at free price Native Americans have passed on their wisdom from collaborating with nature the government drew out the borders of the National Parks as public property for the next generations and John Muir founded the Sierra Club in 1892 to protect the Earth s wild places and promote the responsible use of its ecosystem and resources This spirit of environmentalism even in the face of increasingly more harmful problems has persevered Six decades ago Dr Thor Heyerdahl of Norway led the Kon Tiki Expedition on a 4 300 mile 8 000 km journey across the Pacific Ocean in 1947 Later when he made the Ra Expedition in 1969 he took samples of ocean pollution and presented his findings in a report to Mr U Thant UN Secretary General His discovery of the pollution in the Pacific Ocean brought about the conception of the United Nation Environment Program At the time people thought of the Pacific Ocean always blue and clean and the Pacific Islands as a permanent paradise Dr Heyerdahl helped frame the contemporary environmental movement I mentioned his work in my article Acupuncture Approach to Environmental Global Thinking In the last ten years our knowledge and awareness of environmental issues has immensely improved but so has the seriousness of the environmental

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  • EAST-WEST BRIDGE
    review of these in France Greece Poland Spain and the United Kingdom Birge AG Zug Switzerland July 2013 shows that the reactions of EU member states were directed towards the reduction of medicine costs or state expenses through different mechanisms Reduction of regulated prices Discounts rebates clawback other ways of price reduction Reference pricing system VAT change for medicines Planned changes of distribution costs Tender supply of medicines esp in Germany Denmark The Netherlands Data from the report shows that these mechanisms have led to the cost reduction but at the same time they have pressured the manufacturers so according to the aforementioned report national tendering procedures in for example Germany Denmark and The Netherlands have led to fewer and fewer companies applying to tenders and the process led to periodic shortages of medicines caused by the companies impossibility to fulfil their tendering obligations Birgli analysis states the cases where the manufacturers had simply decided not to supply the market after the tender being won while others had not been able to fulfil their obligations as per the tenders won 4 The aforementioned Birgli report also states that the abovementioned mechanisms have made the manufacturers shift towards markets with higher prices which leads to shortage on low price markets The example of this can be seen in Serbia as well there are multiple examples of a medicines which are now on D list and supplied at higher prices than back when they were regularly produced in Serbia Similarly the procurement of medicines via tenders has lead to global crisis in the supply of older generation cytostatics e g 5 FU the number of suppliers interested in producing the medicine by newly acquired extremely low prices has dropped drastically Research by the London School of Economics 5 also covers tender systems for prescription medicines in Germany and The Netherlands These two countries have several years of experience in this way of supply and are an excellent sample for research of negative and positive sides of INN tenders The research refers to a Dutch report on the shortage of 80 products 30 molecules 6 chosen on tenders Possible causes as per the research are too short a period between the contract signing and first deliveries manufacturers state they need around six months to produce the amount won on a tender In order to avoid these problems manufacturers make supplies even before the tender which eliminates small and middle sized companies from the market which cannot afford goods write off in case of losing the tender which basically reduces the competition in the tendering procedure and with it the possibility to solve the shortage in shorter period of time As a second possible reason for medicines shortage LSE report states limited production capacities of manufacturers or simply bad calculation by manufacturers in the planning process Both reports point out the risks of INN tender system shortages are a big risk even in the countries with vast experience in the field and the competition during the process comes down only to big companies who can bear the risk of goods write off in case of the tender loss LSE report refers to the manufacturers who have to spend about six months or more in case of problems in production for new production as per tender won and large tender amounts In case of INN tender all the other manufacturers have no reason to keep supplies if they lost the tender Thus if the tender winning manufacturer is not able to deliver the medicine the state may have to resort to emergency imports which eventually can result in higher costs than if INN had not happened Role of generic and local production in sustention of health system stability Even with the fact that Serbia spends the least resources per capita in comparison to the neighbouring countries see Table below we can say that it has a stable medicines supply system without any major shortages in the past period Red Medicine ambulatory funds set aside per capita Blue Total medicines market per capita Graph Reimbursement funds expenditure for ambulatory medicines and total medicines market per capita Source Derived from EFPIA data 7 The reason for the good situation when it comes to supplies is clear when you look at the Serbian market where generic companies are present with local production that production and logistics wise can react fast to shortages A recent example is the shortage of aminophylline by Jugoremedija where the whole market went on to being supplied by theophylline by another domestic company This shows that the market stability is possible to reach with low medicine prices without the risks related to INN tenders with the help of the strong local production which guarantees stability and the export increase potential of the Republic of Serbia The best illustration for this is the Table below showing the Serbian medicine market in 2013 and comparing the share of generic and original products by volume and in Euro Table Share or generic and original products in the Serbian market b y volume and value 2013 Standard Units Standard Units Share of Product Parent Sales WHS EUR Sales WHS Share of Product Parent SUM ORIGINAL GENERIC 5 548 809 577 100 00 624 031 930 100 00 GENERIC 3 902 248 339 70 33 295 375 207 47 33 ORIGINAL 1 646 561 238 29 67 328 656 723 52 67 Source IMS Health Serbia IMS Market Viewer report generated 01 2014 From the table we can see that generic products make up over 70 in volume but also less than 50 in value of medicines sold in 2013 From the last two tables and the example of aminophylline we may conclude that the strong local generic industry with local production is the pillar of stability of the health system as it supplies the health system with acceptably priced medicines in large volumes This is a feature of other countries as well where there is a strong generic pharmaceutical industry with local production Below are the examples of Bulgaria Czech Republic Poland Turkey Slovenia and Croatia Czech Republic Zentiva is leading as a local generic manufacturer with production capacities in Prague 8 Poland Polpharma is leading as a local generic manufacturer 9 Bulgaria Actavis has a leading position in Bulgaria as a local generic company with significant production capacities in accordance with the latest standards of good production practices in the town of Dupnitsa with capacities of more than 5 billion pills per year and the town of Troyan Sopharma is also among the leading companies in the market as another generic company with several production capacities in Bulgaria out of which the newest is of 4 billion pills per year 10 Turkey The first and third place as per sales is held by local generic companies with large production capacities Abdi Ibrahim Pharmaceuticals a leading company in Turkey has production plants with capacity of 7 5 billion pills 40 8 million tubes for semi liquid forms 82 5 million of liquid preparation vials and 800 million capsules 11 Bilim Pharmaceuticals is taking the third place with the 4 9 market share money wise and 17 volume wise and the sales of 109 9 million medicine packs in 2012 12 Slovenia Krka as a generic manufacturer with production capacities in Slovenia is holding the first place in sales within Slovenia Moreover Krka has a significant market position in Poland where they have their production plants 13 Croatia Pliva 14 and Belupo are leading as generic manufacturers with local production Belupo has recently announced the expansion of their production capacities in Croatia 15 None of these countries has resorted to radical changes in the medicine supply system because like Serbia they have strong small companies with local production as a guarantee of stability with prices that are acceptable for their health systems In times when Serbia is facing financial difficulties none of the local manufacturers has threatened to leave the market or withdraw products IMS Health analysis of the role of generic industry in sustainability and stability of health systems 16 has come to similar conclusions The essence is that the need for medicines is growing and is satisfied by generic industry making the medicines and therapy more available hereafter we show two graphs from IMS report to illustrate this Source IMS MIDAS MAT 09 2012 IMS Health Copyright 2012 All rights reserved Source IMS MIDAS MAT 09 2012 IMS Health Copyright 2012 All rights reserved The table with the Serbian data shows us that generic manufacturers in Serbia in 2013 represented 70 33 of the volume in the market and account for less than 50 of market value Thus I conclude that the role of generic manufacturers especially those with production capacities in the country represent a guarantee of sustainability of the health care system Manufacturers with local production employees and current investments in Serbia are naturally interested in staying in the market and having a dialogue with the participants in the health care system They are often put in a position to solve marketing issues of non profitable products whose production practically brings losses as well as liquidity issues Role of local generic industry in improvement of the health care system Generic industry as a source of big savings by means of earlier introduction of new therapies thanks to the regulatory and legal framework in the Republic of Serbia In addition to the crucial role of the local generic industry in maintaining the stability of the health care system we should draw attention to the regulatory framework which through the engagement of local industry allows patients in Serbia access to modern therapies cheaper than the current prices in EU countries Until the date of entry into the EU Serbia has the opportunty to with the earlier launch of generic medicines improve health care and simultaneously reduce the costs of treatment for patients and the state This is possible because of Level of patent protection in Serbia and Regulations related to the issuance of permit for medicine Our Law on Medicines Article 230 enables the local generic manufacturers to receive a permit for medicine after the expiration of a period of 6 years with the exception of biological medicines from the date of registration of reference medicine in the EU until the accession of Serbia to the European Union In EU territory this term is 10 to 11 years which gives Serbia an advantage of 4 5 years Such or similar articles of the law were also enforced in Croatia until the date of entry of the same in the EU on 1 July 2013 as well as other countries that are currently not in the EU In addition with the earlier launch of the medicine in Serbia in relation to the EU a possibility arises for Serbia to become a country that would allow other countries that have similar regulations and benefits including for example Russia to launch modern medicines earlier Serbia would thus become the exporter for such early launch medicines This has been already proven in a pilot project with Imatinib which was after its launching in Serbia also launched in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia based on the registration in Serbia and export to these countries Therefore Serbia can not only reach the EU levels of health care if it uses local generic resources but at the same time to also become a major exporter of modern therapies in line with realistic goals and within the legal framework To my knowledge Serbia did not properly use these benefits until 2012 when the first generic Imatinib a medicine for chronic myeloid leukaemia was launched in Serbia the price of which per box prior to the launch of a generic parallel amounted to 2 000 EUR in RSD and RHIF would have in 2012 were it not for introduction of generics set aside over 6 million euros for this product With the introduction of generics price of the medicine declined 4 times so the savings for the health care system since August 2012 to date are over 6 million euros This was possible because Imatinib was due to lack of patent protection for Imatinib in Serbia while in most EU countries this medicine is patent protected until 2015 for the main indications The table below provides information on public procurement that illustrates the savings enabled by generic market penetration Imatinib Illustration of savings for the Health System in Serbia for the period Aug 2012 Jan 2014 Period 08 08 2012 31 01 2014 JN 404 3 110 12 104 404 1 113 12 1 404 1 110 13 37 404 1 19 13 1 404 1 11 13 37 404 1 110 13 110 Amount in mg 58 860 000 Amount in RSD that RHIF would pay if only the originator was in the market 999 645 867 00 Amount in RSD paid by RHIF 268 769 760 00 SAVINGS IN RSD 730 876 107 00 SAVINGS IN EUR 6 355 444 Sources Public Procurement Portal http portal ujn gov rs and internal sales data Actavis In addition to assisting in rationalisation of the health care system funds generic industry should assist in the modernisation of the health care system Resources acquired from these savings can be redirected towards the introduction of innovative medicines to the List towards budget creation for rare disease medicines as well as for the expansion of therapeutical categories through increased application of new modern generified medicines at acceptable prices For instance one third of the mentioned savings from Imatinib could treat 100 000 patients a year suffering from hypertension It is known that about 700 000 people in Serbia uses high blood pressure medication but that are also another 700 000 people who are aware of their hypertension but receive no therapy which brings classifies them to the zone of high cardiovascular risk Calculation explanation This builds on an assumed savings of 2 million EUR which I divide into 12 months and further comparee with the price of monthly basic ACE inhibitor therapy Generic industry as a partner in the expansion of therapeutical categories by means of modern therapies B1 Statins As an example of the expansion of therapeutical categories we can look at the use of statins medicines whose role is to lower the level of harmful cholesterol in the blood Statins are very important in the prevention and delay of the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases The use of statins in Serbia is almost the lowest in Europe as can be seen from the graph below that shows the use of statins per capita in several European countries Graph Use of statins per capita in several European countries Source Author analysis based on IMS Health data Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 17 In the Czech Republic statins are used by 1 4 million people while in Serbia this number is just over 200 thousand due to its insufficient usage in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases In Croatia the following inidications are also reimbursed Primary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and another risk factor in Serbia only secondary prevention Adding the prevention of CVS events in patients with type 2 DM and another risk factor in accordance with the National Guide for the diagnosis and treatment of lipid disorders 18 would lead to cost savings for the treatment of CVS events and their consequences B2 Sartans Sartans are an important part of antihypertensive therapy According to data from the National Guide of Good Clinical Practice for the diagnosis and treatment of arterial hypertension pages 9 and 10 19 and as per the research carried out in 2006 by the Institute of Public Health of Serbia Dr Milan Jovanović Batut 46 5 of adult inhabitants had elevated systolic or diastolic blood pressure or was taking medication to lower the blood pressure At the same time the report points out that only half of that number 24 1 was taking antihypertensive medicines A similar example are medicines from the group of sartans for lowering blood pressure where Serbia also lags behind Europe as can be seen in the table below Graph Use of sartans per capita in several European countries Source Author analysis based on IMS Health data Copyright 2013 All rights reserved 20 One of the reasons for such data is the fact that sartans are limited only to prescription by interns or cardiologists The expansion of prescription rights to general practitioners as is currently the case with ACE inhibitors along with the status of sartans on the A list would bring Serbia to join to the countries who have already introduced this way of prescribing and thus made this significant group of medicines more available to a wider scope of patients Having the insight in the positive lists in Croatia 21 and Slovenia 22 we can see that there prescription rights are not limited to medical specialists B3 Modern antidepressants In its report from 2012 23 Depression A Global Public Health Concern World Health Organisation recognises WHO depression as a heavy burden for the world health system and one of the most common diseases on the 21st century WHO research estimates that the depression affects about 250 million people worldwide highlighting the fact that in the countries included in the survey 1 out of 20 respondents had at least one depressive episode within the past year Analysing of the use of modern antidepressants in Serbia in comparison to other European countries including the following groups SSRI sertraline citalopram escitalopram paroxetine fluoxetine and other medicines SNRI duloxetine venlafaxine desvenlafaxine and more Other atypical modern antidepressants bupropion mianserin trazodone agomelatine mirtazapine and more we come to the conclusion that modern therapy which brings along better efficiency and less side effects still has not been expanded enough in Serbia as seen in the graph below Graph Use of modern antidepressants per capita in several European countries Source Actavis

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  • EAST-WEST BRIDGE
    moral renewal is the only sustainable approach for solving these contradictions within the region The only way of bridging civilizations is especially through application of modern technologies in education for all generations e learning lifelong learning and in form of a university network as well In academic sphere is generally accepted that higher education is the most promising way of long term bridging civilizations in the Balkan region The European Centre Maribor EUCM as an academic community of academics and academic institutions in Danube region has been officially founded in 2007 after long time preparations with support of local community business sector and national institutions in order to develop applicative interdisciplinary and problem oriented under and post graduate programmes which are complementary to existing courses and at the same time demanded in the market and to build social cohesion among nations and civilizations Programmes based on mobility of students and professors thus including professors and scientists from partner institutions especially in the Danube region and the rest of the world will contribute to problem solving in the region and consequently to the quality of life competitiveness sustainable development bridging civilizations and peace As a high education institution EUCM is intending to promote into an international university in 2010 after fulfilling legal and academic standards for centre of excellence that invites students and professors from different civilizations EUCM is an international university for excellence in education strategic and applied research and flexible delivery of learning and teaching Primary pursuit is to develop distance education together with information and communication technology ICT partners Distance education will support the Life Long Learning principles leading towards general professional moral and cultural recovery in the entire region and towards promotion of bridging civilizations On the initiative of contemporary humanists more than 200 academics and several

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